The USS Enterprise is an Odyssey class cruiser. Although the Odyssey class was originally conceived as a Battlecruiser variant, the Enterprise is a refit of the original Odyssey template - with larger focus on science and exploration, rather than pure tactical capabilities.
However, the Enterprise is also the first ship in Starfleet to be fitted with the product of a combined Federation/Klingon technology development - Phased Disruptors. The Phased Disruptors offer a slightly different firing profile from traditional phasers or disruptors, giving the best of both possible combinations - with increased damage profile.
The Enterprise also supports its own built-in support ship, the USS Aquarius, a ship purpose built to dock with the Odyssey class, to provide Destroyer class support for the pondering heavy vessel. Whilst the tactical profile of the Aquarius remains the same, she does feature some creature comforts to allow for crew support for extended missions.
With the addition of Slipstream Drive, the Enterprise is able to travel considerable distances, but also be able to return to Federation space for resupply/refit, as well as in times of crisis.